Most weavers use cotton to make the weft and warp threads for Tabriz rugs. However, wool is sometimes used as the basis for tribal rugs, while silk serves as the pile and foundation. Pile is a term used in carpet weaving to refer to fiber or material. Persian rugs are made from wool, cotton, silk, or other types.
Most handmade rugs are made from wool. Wool is the material of choice for its durability as well as softness. Also, he is one of the best materials available in Iran. Weavers sometimes use goats or camels’ hair in few quantities. Excessive goat or camel hair may be undesirable in Kashan’s rugs. These materials give the rugs a special shine, but they are very difficult to dye and the rugs tend to fade faster than wool rugs.
Iran has a mountainous terrain that supports the production of high-quality wool. The best wool is obtained from the underbelly and shoulders when the lamb is first shaved. A new thread is of the highest quality and is often used with silk.
Weavers primarily use cotton as a base for fine rugs. However, this material introduces white details that vary in texture and color. Some weavers use mercerized cotton to create a “rayon” look.
The vegetable fiber of cotton absorbs dyes efficiently, and this material is cheaper than silk or wool. This is why some weavers prefer cotton type. However, rugs made from this material are less durable than wool or silk.
Silk is expensive and not often used in antique rugs. However, this material is more durable and fine-grained than most other natural fibers. The more expensive nature, intricate detailing, and skill required to make silk runner rugs make them ideal for low-traffic areas. Or you can use it as a wall hanging.
Some weavers incorporate a small amount of silk into the pile of wool to add depth and detail to the rug’s character. If you have a fine silk Persian rug, always clean it with a recommended professional. Do not attempt to clean it yourself.
Aniline dyes were introduced to Persia in the late 19th century. These dyes faded quickly to rough colors. Therefore, it was considered unsuitable for making carpet yarn. The Persian government banned imports in the 20th century and allowed them to burn down all dye houses using them. Today, a wide variety of durable chrome dyes are available worldwide.
Natural and Vegetable Dyes:
Natural dyes are more durable and attractive than chrome dyes. Akanke is the most popular vegetable dye. It produces a red color. A significant amount of traditional carpet fabrics contain this dye. Mixing different natural dyes results in different colors. For example, mixing indigo and saffron produces blue. If you want black, you can simply dip brown-dyed wool in indigo, and all shades of blue come from indigo.
The most commonly used vegetable dye in rug weaving is indigo. Indigo is obtained by fermenting indigo leaves. Delphinium flowers, stems and leaves can also be cooked to produce delphiniums. Saffron flowers also give an unusual yellow tint.